Behind Puncak Jaya (Carstensz Pyramid) at 4,884 m (16,024 ft), it is either the second or third highest mountain on the island of New Guinea and the Australasian continent. As such it appears on some Seven Second Summits lists, although SRTM-data support that Puncak Mandala (Juliana Peak) in the Jayawijaya (Orange) Range is higher with 4,760 m (15,617 ft).
At the beginning of the 20th century all the highest mountains in New Guinea, as well as Puncak Jaya (Carstensz Pyramid), Puncak Mandala (Juliana Peak), Ngga Pilimsit (Idenburg) and Puncak Trikora (Wilhelmina Peak) were covered by glaciers. The first expeditions to Maoke Mountains documented a strong recent retreat of all glaciers in the area. The ice cap of Puncak Trikora melted between 1936 and 1962. In 1909 the ice cap still reached as low as 4,400 m (14,436 ft).
Puncak Trikora is a high point on the central range (Sudirman (Nassau) Range), which was created in the late Miocene Melanesian orogeny, caused by oblique collision between the Australian and Pacific plates and is made of middle Miocene limestones.
The navigable Noord River made the mountain more accessible than the other snow-covered peaks of Dutch New Guinea and the Dutch organized a series of scientific expeditions in the early 20th century to reach the equatorial eternal snow and climb the mountain. The leader of the first two expeditions was the diplomat and amateur biologist H.A. Lorentz. Each expedition was accompanied by soldiers, porters and dayaks, who were employed for their expertise with boat journeys.
In July 1907, the first expedition established Camp Alkmaar near where the Noord River, since 1910 known as the Lorentz River, became unnavigable (4°40′S 138°42′E), but was unsuccessful in penetrating to the highest mountain range. The Second South New Guinea Expedition also used Camp Alkmaar, from where it left on October 9, 1909. A group of nine, including Lorentz and Jan Willem van Nouhuys, were the first to reach the eternal snow of New Guinea at a height of 4,460 m (14,633 ft) on November 8, 1909. From the ridge they observed a large lake to the north, which Lorentz named Lake Habbema (4°08′S 138°40′E), after a member of the expedition. No attempt was made to reach the Wilhelmina summit. The return trip was severe; with a loss of four expedition members, the explorers finally returned to Camp Alkmaar in mid-December.
The summit was first reached in 1913 during the Third South New Guinea Expedition, which lasted from September 1912 to April 1913 and followed the same route. It was led by Alphons Franssen Herderschee, an officer of the Royal Dutch East Indies Leger (Koninklijk Nederlandsch-Indisch Leger), and its aim was to research the soils, flora and fauna of the region that lay above 2,300 metres. Other expedition members were the zoologist Gerard Martinus Versteeg, the botanist August Adriaan Pulle, the geologist Paul François Hubrecht, and J.B. Sitanala, an Indonesian GP. Herderschee also took over the role of ethnographer. Including soldiers, porters and dayaks, the baggage train had 241 members. They were divided up into several groups in order to carry out the different tasks in a time-effective way. Herderschee, Hubrecht and Versteeg formed the summit team, which reached the Wilhelminatop on 21 February 1913.
The 1920-1922 Central New Guinea Expedition had as goal to reach the mountain from the north coast over a route partially explored in a 1914 military expedition. On February 7, 1920 the first exploration, under leadership of A.J.A. van Overeem started at the mouth of the Mamberamo and followed the Idenburg River. In October, they had climbed across the Doorman Mtns and reached the upper Swart Valley (now Toli Valley). Here they made first contact with the Lani people (a.k.a. the Western Dani people), an agricultural people with whom they stayed for six weeks. Running out of time and food provisions, this expedition returned without climbing Wilhelmina.
A follow-up expedition starting in June 1921 and led by J.H.G. Kremer, who was surveyor the previous year, retraced the route, and via the upper Baliem Valley and Lake Habbema reached the summit on 4 December 1921. Among the ascendants was Paul Hubrecht, who had been on the top in 1913 and noticed that the ice cap had retreated considerably since 8 years before.
The Dani living near lake Habbema call the mountain Ettiakup. Around 1905 the mountain was named after the Dutch Queen Wilhelmina. When Indonesia obtained control of West New Guinea in 1963 it changed the name of the mountain to Puncak Trikora, after the Trikora (Tri Komando Rakyat, "People’s Triple Command") speech by Sukarno given in December 1961 at a mass meeting in Yogyakarta. The three commands were: to defeat the formation of an independent state of West Papua, raise the Indonesian flag in that country, and be ready for mobilization at any time
Day 1: Wamena Airport-Free and Easy
Arrival in Wamena, Transfer to your hotel. Overnight including full board.
Day 2: Trikora Trekking
Drive to the southern side of Lake Habema by off-road vehicle, together with guide, cook and porters. Depending on weather and road conditions, we must schedule the whole day for this ride. Shortly after leaving the vehicle, tentcamp at typical highmoor landscape.
Day 3: Trikora Trekking
Today, about 6 hours trekking until we reach our camping ground. In the morning we first cross Wamena River and then go pass wide open grassland with many picturesque tree ferns. Short lunchbreak. We reach our camp for the night in the early afternoon.
Day 4: Trikora Trekking
Today we need about 3-4 hours until we reach the famous SOMALAK cave. This spacious cave provides enough room for our whole crew to sleep and cook as well as shelter from the rain. In 1905, the cave was used for the first time as a camping site during the Lorentz expedition. Since then it became an important point for all Trikora expeditions.
Day 5: Trikora Trekking
Ascent to the base camp, located directly at the foot of the Trikora main massif. This trek will take 2-3 hours. Depending on weather conditions, we might have time to climb the nearby TRIKORA MINOR after raising our camp. At a good sight one has an unforgettable view over wide parts of the central highlands as well as the Baliem Valley in the distance.
Day 6: Trikora Trekking
Before dawn we start the ascent of MOUNT TRIKORA. The way to and over the ridge is quite easy but far. The ascent of the highest rocky promontory is difficult and only feasible with professional equipment. Later descent to the camp of our crew directly underneath our basecamp. Only here we find enough wood for cooking.
Day 7:Trikora Trekking
Descent and trekking back to our meeting point at the road near Lake Habema. Today nightcamp in the forest.
Day 8: Trikora Trekking-Wamena
Only 1-2 hours of trekking until we reach our pick-up point next to the road. Around noon we await our car. Drive via Wamena back to The the hotel. Overnight including full board at the Hotel.
Day 9: Wamena-Airport-Next Destination.
Breakfast at the hotel. We transfer you to the airport for your flight back to Jayapura/Bali or next destination.
Rate : USD 4.700/person/twin share, Minimum 2 person
- English speaking guide
- Meals full board
- Program as itinerary
- Travel permit (Surat Jalan)
- 2x Overnights Hotel in Wamena (full board)
- Refreshment ( Mineral water, coffee and teas )
- Entrance fees
- Domestic International flight (can be booked on request)
- All airport taxes
- Beverages in hotels + restaurants
- Private expenses during the tour
- Village donation
- Passport has to be valid minimum 6 months at date of entry Indonesia
- Please check with your embassy if you need a visa for Indonesia and about the procedure
- When entering Papua, every visitor has to bring a passport copy and two passport pictures for the travel permit
- A checklist on what equipment to bring will be send after booking confirmation.
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